Mediterranean Diet Low Sodium Meal Plan

The Mediterranean Diet is high in fruits, vegetables, and lean meats and seafood. The common thread is an abundance of Vitamin E found in many meals. Lastly, socialize and exercise with family and friends to make this a complete Lifestyle Change!

The following sample daily menu is a plan that incorporates both the Mediterranean and “DASH” diets, with the latter focused on reduced sodium intake.  By structuring meals throughout the week improved health will soon be noticed. One change that is noticeable with listed meals is that the calories are loaded in the morning and afternoon, the calories then taper off in the evening.

A key element to the success of this diet is reduced low salt intake in the food preparation. Fluids are equally important for a healthy lifestyle, add 6-8 glasses of water to your daily routine, choosing to squeeze the contents of 1/2 -1 whole lemon to a single  glass of water each day.

Please contact the listed telephone number if you are interested in more information or would like to establish a consultation. kimberlyscardicchio@yahoo.com

Breakfast

  • 1 slice whole wheat toast (I choose Aunt Millies “5 Grain Bread Light”, 2.5 grams fiber/slice.)
  • 1 tbsp Raspberry Jelly
  • Oatmeal (preferably 1 or 5 minute stove top)
  • 1 orange
  • (1.5  breads, 1 grain, 1 fruit)
  • 2 glasses of water (one glass of water with the juice squeezed from a fresh lemon.)

1 glass of water

10:30 am Snack
Chop and Combine

  • 1 Tbsp unsalted nuts  or sunflower seeds
  • 1 (choose 1) apple, plum, pear, peach
  • 1 four ounce low fat yogurt
  • 1 glass water
  • (1 protein, 1 fruit,  1 dairy)

Lunch

  • 2-3 oz fillet of fish, lean meat or poultry with 1/4 tsp salt or Mrs. Dash salt substitute
  • 1 c. ea. sliced carrots / zucchini (sautee 15 min’s with 1/8 c. olive oil. Add minced garlic, parsley)
  • diced 1 potato, 1 pepper, 1 peeled onion season with rosemary, thyme, 1/4 tsp salt, 1/8 c. oil. (Heat on med. for 20 minutes.)
  • 1 glass of wine
  • 1/2 cup grapes
  • (3 vegetable, 1 fruit, 1 protein,  1 fat)
  • 1 glass of water

2:00 pm   Snack

  • 1 Banana, or 1/4 cup berries, or 7 prunes
  • 1 glass of water
  • (1 fruit)

1 glass of water

Dinner

  • 1 cup lettuce
  • 1/2 cup tomato
  • 1 cup VEGETABLE: avocado, beans, sweet potato, or baked potato
  • 4 ounces of fish or chicken
  • 1 ounce of low fat cheese
  • 1-2 tsp Olive Oil and Vinegar
  • Glass of water with lemon
  • 1 Fruit of choice
  • (3 vegetable, 1 fat, 1 dairy, 1 protein, 1 fruit)

2 glasses of  water before bed

Kidney Disease Low Phosphorus Diet

We are all provided with two equal fist sized organs, found in our lower back on either side of the spine just above the waist called Kidneys. Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is a medical specialty that focuses on kidney disease.

In brief, the kidneys perform multiple functions to sustain the life of the body, cleanse the body by removing waste and excess fluid through urine, provide a balance of water, salt, potassium, phosphorus and produce an active form of Vitamin D.  Multiple hormones and enzymes are produced in the kidneys and released into the body affecting the function of other organs, signaling red blood cell production, regulating blood pressure (Renin) and calcium metabolism.

The degradation of the kidneys can be influenced by a variety of factors. Having regular check-ups is key to kidney health. Do not miss doctor appointments if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic urinary tract infection, bladder issues, chronic lower back pain. Any of all of these factors should be monitored an communicated in a timely manner.

   When kidneys begin to function improperly an individual may have any, or all of the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue and weakness, loss of energy, sleep problems, any change in output or color of urine, decreased mental awareness, muscle twitches or cramps, hiccups, swelling of feet or ankles, persistent itching, chest pains, shortness of breath, high blood pressure. Symptoms should be discussed with your Doctor. Early detection of kidney disease can be addressed, so that the health of the kidneys can be sustained.

A diet low in phosphorus, sodium and balanced protein is critical when addressing kidney disease. Listed below are foods allowed for patients facing kidney issues taken from DaVita who specializes in Renal Disease.  Four important points should be reviewed with your Doctor or Dietitian.

  • Foods Low in Phosphorus (less than 110 mg per serving)
  • Consume 800-1000 mg of phosphorous per day.
  • Portion Size is critical to staying in range of low phosphorus.
  • (A normal phosphorus blood level is 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL)
Additional information on the kidneys can be reviewed at The National Kidney Foundation. Learn more about Renal Health, disease and locate professionals that can answer your questions.
By: Kimberly Crocker-Scardicchio
References
The National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org/index.cfm
DaVita http://www.davita.com/
Webmd http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-kidney-disease-basic-information
Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/kidney-failure/DS00682

LOW PHOSPHORUS FOOD SERVINGS & mg/100g

Low-phosphorus meat and poultry choices
Fresh or frozen red meats without additives or enhancements are better choices (be sure to check ingredient labels; even fresh chicken and pork may be injected with phosphates and sodium) for a kidney diet.

** Choose meats without breading, marinades or sauce. On average, fresh meat contains 65 mg of phosphorus per ounce and 7 grams of protein per ounce. Check with your Doctor or Dietitian on serving size per meat. While most will say that 3 ounces is fine the following serving size has been modified to a 2 ounce serving size.

Phosphorus content for a 2-ounce portion, cooked:

Beef, pot roast: 104 mg Beef, sirloin steak: 126 mg
Chicken breast, skinless: 126  mg Chicken thigh, skinless: 100 mg
Hamburger patty 90% lean ground beef: 114 mg Lamb chop: 122 mg
Pork roast: 126 mg
Turkey breast meat, skinless: 122 mg Turkey thigh meat, skinless: 114 mg

 Low-phosphorus fish choices 

Fish is a high-quality protein that contains omega-3 fatty acids. Fatty saltwater fish such as salmon and tuna are highest in omega-3, reducing inflammation and protecting against heart disease and cancer.

Phosphorus content for a 2-ounce portion, cooked:

Mahi Mahi: 104 mg
Tuna, canned: 88 mg

 

Low-phosphorus seafood choices

Seafood is an excellent source of very low-fat, high-quality protein. However, there are differences in varieties of the same species. For example, Pacific oysters contain 50 mg more phosphorus in a 3-ounce serving compared to Eastern oysters.

Phosphorus content for a 3-ounce portion, cooked:

Shrimp: 120 mg
Oysters, Eastern: 120 mg
Snow crab: 120 mg

 Low-phosphorus breads

Bread is a good source of carbohydrates and calories needed by your body fo renergy production. While whole grain bread is a healthy source of fiber, it also has more phosphorus and potassium than white flour bread.

Phosphorus content for a 1-ounce portion, (usually one piece of bread):

Bagel, cinnamon raisin, blueberry, plain, onion, 1 ounce: 53-70 mg Corn tortilla, 6-inch: 75 mg
English muffin, 1 ounce: 52-76 mg Flat bread: 48 mg
Flour tortillas, made without baking powder: 20-37 mg French bread or rolls: 28 mg
Italian bread or rolls: 29 mg Light wheat bread: 38 mg
Pita bread, white: 58 mg Sourdough bread: 30 mg
White bread: 25 mg

 Low-phosphorus pasta and rice

Pasta, rice and other grains are a great source of carbohydrates, calories and B vitamins, plus zinc, copper and iron. For a kidney diet, whole grains like brown rice, oat bran and wild rice ARE LIMITED due to the higher phosphorus content. A half cup of brown rice has 75-81 mg of phosphorus which can add up if you eat a larger portion.

Phosphorus content for a 1/2 cup portion, cooked:

Couscous: 20 mg Egg noodles: 50-60 mg
Macaroni: 40 mg Pearled barley: 43 mg
Plain white rice, short, medium or long grain: 35 mg Rice noodles: 14-28 mg
Spaghetti: 42 mg

 Low-phosphorus dairy, dairy substitutes and egg whites

Milk and milk products are high in calcium and phosphorus, so finding an acceptable lower phosphorus substitute is a must. A half cup of milk (4 ounces) contains 111-138 mg of phosphorus. Some liquid dairy substitutes can be used in cooking to replace milk, but not all products are interchangeable. Read ingredient lists to look for phosphate additives in nondairy products. Some products are fortified with calcium-phosphate. Beware of the ones that promote “high in calcium” as these are also high in phosphorus. Eggs are a great protein source but also contain 95 mg phosphorus in a large egg. Remove the yolk and phosphorus is only 5 mg for each egg white.

Phosphorus content for a 1/2 cup portion, unless stated otherwise:

Almond milk, Almond Breeze®, original: 50 mg Nondairy creamer without phosphate additives: 40-53 mg
Nondairy whipped topping, 2 tablespoons: 0-10 mg Sherbet: 38 mg
Sour cream, 2 tablespoons: 20-40 mg Soy milk varies by brand: 50-125 mg
Unenriched rice milk without calcium-phosphate additives: 29 mg Egg whites, pasteurized 15 mg

 Low-phosphorus snacks

Crackers, cookies, candy, fruits or vegetables — all are appealing snack foods.There are many low-phosphorus choices for your kidney diet.

Apple, 1 medium: 10 mg Applesauce, 1/2 cup: 6 mg
Baby carrots, 9 pieces: 25 mg Biscotti, without chocolate or nuts, 1 ounce: 35-50 mg
Blueberries, 1/2 cup: 9 mg Celery, 1 stalk: 10 mg
Cherries, 1/2 cup: 15 mg Fig bars, 2 bars: 10-25 mg
Fruit candies, hard candy, chews or gummy: 0 mg Fruit cocktail, 1/2 cup: 17 mg
Gelatin, without phosphate additives: 20-30 mg Low sodium crackers, 1 ounce: 20-35 mg
Peach, 1 medium: 10 mg Lemon Juice, 3 fluid ounces: 3.6 mg
Pineapple, fresh, 1/2 cup: 6 mg Radishes, 10: 9 mg
Shortbread cookies, 4 cookies: 17-35 mg Sorbet, 1/2 cup: 2-6 mg
Strawberries, fresh, 1/2 cup: 18 mg Unsalted popcorn, 1 cup: 8 mg
Unsalted pretzels, 1 ounce: 20-40 mg Vanilla wafers, 1 ounce = 5-8 cookies: 12-20 mg

 Lower phosphorus cheese choices

All cheese contains phosphorus with most having 120-250 mg per ounce; some contain more than 300 mg per ounce. The suggested portion for a dialysis diet is usually one ounce of cheese 1-2 times a week if phosphorus is controlled. Check with your dietitian for individual recommendations. Cream cheese-based spreads are much lower in phosphorus than cheese-based spreads. Portion control is key when it comes to cheese!

Low-phosphorus cheese choices:

Blue cheese, 1 ounce: 110 mg Cottage cheese, 1/4 cup: 92 mg
Cream cheese, 2 tablespoons: 20-40 mg Feta cheese, 1 ounce: 96 mg
Neufchatel cheese, 1 ounce: 39 mg Parmesan cheese, grated, 2 tablespoons: 72 mg

 Managing a low-phosphorus diet

Avoid dried fruits which are higher in phosphorus levels including: raisins, prunes, peaches, pears, dates, currants, bananas. Legumes should be reviewed with your dietitian, some are higher in phosphorus and may not be allowed.

FRUITS

Most fruits can be factored at 10 mg phosphorus per serving. Some fruits do not have any phosphorus. Fresh fruits with higher levels of phosphorus can be eaten in moderation. Weigh your food carefully to configure the amount of mg/100g.

GREAT CHOICE, No present phosphorous in fruit; Raspberries, Cherries, Grapefruit, Lychee, Apricots, Pineapple, Plum, Pumpkin

Banana 27 mg; Blackberries 27 mg; Kiwi 71 mg; strawberries 27mg; Tomato 63 mg; Watermelon 26 mg; Mango 23 mg; Orange 18 mg

VEGETABLES

GREAT CHOICE, No present phosphorus in vegetables: Brussel Sprouts, Chicory, Cucumber, Pickles, Leeks, Olives, Radish, Red Paprika,

Asparagus 49 mg: Artichoke 103 mg; Avocado 82 mg; Broccoli 46 mg; Baked Beans 132 mg; Cabbage 36 mg; Carrots 23 mg; Cauliflower 20 mg; Corn 79 mg; Green Beans 26 mg;  Green Peppers 14 mg; Mushrooms 36 mg; Onion 23 mg; Peas 187 mg; Potato 78 mg; Spinach 15 mg; Zucchini 7 mg; Lima Beans 178 mg;

If baking at home, explore substitutes in baking found at DeVita.com. Bakers Active Dry Yeast provides a good solution when baking.  Another TIP to adding levitation is to follow the recipe backwards, eliminate baking powder and salt. Beat the egg whites in a separate bowl until foamy, add a few grains of cream of tarter, beat another 10 seconds. Lastly, fold egg whites into the other ingredients.

Fast Food; Fatty Liver

    How often do you eat “Fast Food in a week’s time?  Is it the best choice, or the easiest way to “Fit A Meal into your day?  Nutrition starts at birth. Life moves forward, “diet” becomes more hectic and evolves from being a way to live, to a way to survive.
     If you are asked to name two questions, routinely raised at any Doctor’s office, most people would correctly respond:
 “Do you drink?”
 “Do you smoke?”
      How often are patients probed to reflect on a daily routine at a yearly check-up with a medical inquiry of, “How many times a week or month do you eat fast food?”  One in five adults are identified with a form of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.  It would stand to reason that if the doctor does not ask the patient about their food intake, the patient should be asking for a analysis of their liver enzymes.
 Recent research studies have proven  “A diet high in FAST FOOD consumption  leads to Liver Disease (Cirrhosis, or Cancer)”.  “Fatty Liver is the most common liver abnormality in children ages 2-9 years old,” revealed in The Office Journal of American Pediatrics      October, 2006.
    Liver disease can only be determined by having liver enzymes evaluated through a blood draw at a yearly check-up. Once diagnosed, recommendation’s will be made and a new dietary routine will be followed by the patient.

      Awareness about the quantity and quality of fast food, saturated with salt and boiling oil,

Fast food leads to Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

slowly kills the liver of adults and children, is the first critical step in re-thinking weekly meal plans  .

     The good news is that a Lifestyle Change improving on:  what is eaten, increased exercise,  avoidance of alcohol and limited sodium intake can return a damaged liver to a healthier state.

Once diagnosed with liver disease, your goal is to help the organ return to it’s normal functions, it’s ability to process everything that you eat and drink. A healthy lifestyle can help you feel your best and help your body cope with it’s disease. By eating


healthy and doing physical activity in moderation you will:

  1. Give your body the energy it needs to work well.
  2. Boost your immune system.
  3. Help your liver renew itself.

                                                         

           Eat Well….Enjoy the Healing Power of Food       Keep your energy level up by eating smaller meals and snacks more often. Organs filled with sodium must be flushed with foods high in Potassium: Sweet Potatoes, Baked Potato; Yogurt; Clams, Halibut; Lima, White and Soy Beans: Prunes, Kiwi, Bananas.

  1. Add, 6-8 glasses of water a day will assist in purifying the body from excess sodium and toxin’s.
  2. Enjoy light to moderate physical activity, such as walking, swimming, gardening
  3. Build up slowly to 30 to 60 minutes of activity, at least 4 times a week.
  4. Avoid food poisoning by storing and preparing foods safely. Wash your hands often.
  5. Talk to your health care provider if depression affects your ability to eat well.

Decrease some of the symptoms and the side effects of any treatments, such as feeling tired and sick by following a healthy diet.

  1. Carbohydrates: Whole grains, fruits and vegetables
  2. Fat: Healthy oils such as: Extra Virgin Olive, Canola oil, Avocado and Smart Balance oils. Omega 3, 6 reduces the inflammation in the liver: Fish, Walnuts, Flaxseed
  3. Protein: Fish (3 x’s / wk), Poultry, Lean Meat

What your body does not need 
1. Avoid alcohol.
2. Avoid foods that contain trans fat. Trans Fat must be 0 grams.
3. No more pretzels , chips, popcorn, french fries, cheese, certain meats, soy sauce and Avoid Sports Drinks. Salt, canned and processed foods must be limited.

Tasty fast food can happen in your own kitchen! After reflecting on the latest research consider preparing any of these healthy 7 Easy Recipes under 7 minutes!

Keep in communication with your doctor and dietitian so that neccessary adjustments can be made accordingly to your diet and physical activity plans.

By: K. Crocker

Literature Research
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/118/4/1388
http://organtransplant.mc.duke.edu/PDFs/Liver_Pre_3.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retr
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17006918&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsum
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17047295&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum
http://magazine.wustl.edu/Winter05/SamuelKlein.htm

Low Sodium Rubs, Marinades and Glaze

 Great for Grilling and Barbecuing Meats and Poultry 

Cajun Spice Rub

2 Tbsp Paprika, 1 Tbsp ground Cumin, 1 Tsbp dried Thyme, 4 mined garlic cloves, 1 diced onion, 1 Tbsp dired Oregano1 tsp black pepper, 1 tsp Gound Cayenne

Allspice, Garlic, Marjoram, Parsley ,Thyme   • Mix 1 tsp of each and rub into any any red meat.

Marjoram, Rosemary, Tarragon, Lemon Zest    • Combining 1 tsp of each spice and the zest of half of lemon rub into the chicken or turkey.

Cayene, Gound Cumin, Garlic to spice up your meats.  Mix together1 Tbsp Cumin, 1 tsp Cayene, 2 minced Garlic  and rub into meat.

Marinades

Soy Sauce, Garlic, Olive Oil, Balsalmic Vinegar Great for Pork!

2 Tbsp Reduced Sodium Soy Sauce,

2 minced garlic

1 Tbsp Olive Oil,

3 Tbsp Balsalmic Vinegar.

Place meat inside 1 gallon plastic bag and let marinade for two hours. May store in refrigerator for up to three days.

Basic Wine Marinade

1/4 (60 ml) cup olive oil,

1/4 (60 ml) Red Wine (RED MEATS) and White Wine (WHITE MEATS),

1 onion grated,

2 garlic cloves minced,

1 tbsp herbs (oregano, rosemary, marjoram, or bay leaf, or Italian Seasoning),

1 tsp pepper,

and 1/4 tsp salt.

Combine all ingredients with meat into a 1 gallon plastic bag.  Allow to marinade for 2-4 hours and up to 48 hours.

Glaze

Rum Glaze

1/2 cup (100g) brown sugar

2 Tbsp dark rum

grated zest of 1 lime

Juice of 1 lime

1 Tbsp dry mustard

Mix all ingredients together.

Coat meat with a Dry Rub of your choice. Cook over low heat. Brush on glaze at end of cooking time.

Mango Mustard Glaze

2 1/2 tbsp mango chutney

1 1/2 tbsp Dijon mustard

1 1/2 tbsp apricot jam

3 -5 drops Tabasco Sauce

Mix all ingredients together then brush over cooked meat.  Return to grill and continue cooking for 15-20 minutes make sure that it glazes, but does not burn.

By Kimberly Crocker

Low Sodium Meal Plan DASH Diet

“Dash Diet” 

Avoid eating foods from cans that are high in sodium (salt)

The average American presently consumes 5-8 tsps of salt per day! This is extremely dangerous in the long run for your organs, but specifically for the heart and kidneys.

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), or a low sodium diet is  an easy lifestyle to adapt by limiting salt intake to 1-2 tsp’s per day & add potassium to provide balance and flushing out excess sodium with:

Eat a Meal High in Potassium: Fruit, Veggies, Legumes, Fish

  • Fresh Fruit
  • Fresh Vegetables
  • Legumes (dried, cooked at home, seasoned: garlic, onion, rosemary)
  • Fresh Fish.
  • 6-8 Glasses of water or tea.

Following the Mediterranean or DASH Diet gives a person the proper amounts of food consumed at each sitting therefore reducing risk of hypertension for an individual.  There are a variety of Salt Substitutes on the market.   Mrs. Dash is commonly used and a favorite of most, does come in a variety of flavors. However, vegetables tossed and sauteed in olive oil with fresh herbs and fish or meats prepared with spices and herbs, add flavor and reduce sodium. Obtain more ideas on how to use Herbs and Spices to Replace the Salt Shaker

Fluids are equally important to a successful diet.  Lemon Water made with 1/2-1 freshly squeezed lemon in a glass of water each day, an additional source of potassium to rid the body of excess sodium . Foods to restrict if instructed to follow a Low Sodium Meal are: Carrots, Celery, Spinach, Beets.  Additional tips:

  • Stop consuming tap water that is conditioned with a water softener
  • Drink bottled water and Green, Black or White Tea
  • Rinse all canned foods really well before preparing them.

Meal Plan Low Sodium (LS)

Breakfast
Bread or Cereal…. Oatmeal (Instant “Heart Healthy Advanced Nutrition” LS and high Potassium)
Fruit…………………..apple, orange, kiwi, banana, dried apricots, prunes, raisins
Orange Juice or skim 1% Milk.

Snack am
Fruit 

Lunch
Vegetable……………cole slaw
Vegetable……………LS Cream of potato soup, baked sweet potato
Meat…………………..meatloaf with LS Gravy (3 0z). grilled or baked salmon, fish
Vegetable…………..twice baked potato and steamed green beans
Bread…………………wheat Roll
Dessert……………..orange sherbet, pears, plums

Snack pm 
Fruit…………………..(Choose 1) banana, Kiwi, orange, seasonal fruit

Milk…………………. ..4-6 oz low or nonfat yogurt

Dinner
Meat……………….,,seasoned Chicken Breast (3 oz)  (turned in freshly chopped herbs and garlic)
Bread……………….sesame seed multi grain bun,
Vegetable………….Lettuce, tomato and onion (cooked or raw)
Vegetable……….. .soup Lima or white beans, salad with avocado, beets, spinach
Fruit…………………fruit, melon
……………LS apple pie

References

 

Chicken and Dumplings (reduced-sodium)

Easy Chicken and Dumplings

2 Tbsp. flour

1 cup cooked chicken, diced

2 Tbsp. water

1/4 tsp. Mrs. Dash salt substitute

1 cup Very-low Sodium chicken broth granules

Dash pepper

Mix the flour and water in a pan until smooth.

Slowly stir in broth.

Cook over medium heat until thickened.

Add chicken, salt and pepper.

Drop dumpling dough from a tablespoon onto gently boiling mixture, making 4 dumplings.

Cover pan tightly and cook slowly for 15 minutes without lifting the lid.

Serves 2.

 Dumplings:

1/3 cup flour

1/4 tsp. Mrs. Dash salt substitute

1/2 tsp. baking powder

2 Tbsp. milk

Combine flour baking powder and salt in a small bowl. Stir in milk until dough forms.

NUTRITION FACTS (per serving) – Calories 300 ~ fat 11 g ~ calories from fat 100 ~ sodium 250 mg ~total carbohydrate 23 g