Euphoria, Pleasure, Happiness! Which Nutrient do You Need?

Need a pick me up? Do you feel deflated, demotivated, or depressed? Such pessimistic symptoms can leave one dragging their feet, however, can also be combatted through an intake of dietary nutrients that provide a natural supplementation for enhancement of moods

Foods that Increase Euphoria & Pleasure Release Dopamine

A good reason to consume 1 ounce of dark chocolate a day is that it has the chemical phenylethylamine which releases dopamine.  Dr. Mindy Dopler Nelson of Stanford University,  states that, “The compound is thought to be  responsible for the high you experience after eating chocolate because it releases natural feel-good chemicals called endorphins in your brain.  According to All Chocolate, PEA is released by the brain when people are falling in love, and this might explain why chocolate and Valentines Day are so closely linked.”

Chocolate has a chemical that causes dopamine to be released in the brain, inspiring a sense of euphoria and pleasure.

Dr. Nelson explains, “Chocolate is a stimulant that will release the dopamine that creates that pleasure feeling. It’s in the cocoa. There’s more of it in dark chocolate than in milk chocolate. But there’s something about the fat in the milk that also will make you feel good. Some people associate a comfort food with a high-fat food. There also are antioxidants in the dark chocolate, but watch the dosage! Excess can be harmful for your liver and pile on the pounds. Dopamine has an amphedamine effect, hence the term chocoholic. You also cannot ignore the fact it contains mucho caffeine that will keep you up at night. (And if you don’t get enough sleep it will effect your serotonin level.)

Other food sources of phenylethylamine are: Almonds (can promote migraine headaches if too many are consumed.) and Cheese should be consumed in 1 ounce or 28 grams per day, Red Wine (4-6 ounces or 125-200 ml per day) and Tomatoes.  An apple a day contains tyrosine which also converts to dopamine.

Eat to Improve Mood, Memory, & Sleep: vitamin B6 & Trytophan

If diagnosed with depression, try pursuing some dietary changes before starting medication, or implement in addition to the intake of medication.  Facing depression head on, incorporating walking twice a day along with new nutritional choices and professional help can give you a new perspective on life.  Your daily dietary intake should consist of 2-3 of the following through out the day:

  • Nuts (1 ounce, or 28 grams a day) Cashews or Brazilian Nuts are also linked to reducing coronary, depression, and diabetic symptoms in addition to promoting weight loss.
  • Bananas (1 banana per day)
  • Poultry for protein (tryptophan. 4-6 ounces)
  • Salmon
  • Tofu
  • Milk  (8-16 ounces or 245-490 ml per day)
  • Yogurt (4-6 ounces a day or 125-200 ml day)
  • A plate of Sri Lanken Chicken Cashew has nutrition properties to reduce symptoms of depression.

Cashew nuts are very rich source of minerals. Minerals especially manganese, potassium, copper, iron, magnesium, zinc and selenium are concentrated in the nuts. A handful of cashew nuts a day in the diet would provide enough of these minerals and prevent deficiency diseases.

 “Vitamin B6 and Tryptophan”.   Foods such as turkey, chicken, quail, banana, and even milk can fight depression symptoms. All contain Vitamin B6 (which helps create serotonin) and have the protein Tryptophan  that can be converted to the neurotransmitter, serotonin, which is linked with happiness, or known as a “Mood” enhancer.  In simplified terms, a Neurotransmitter (serotonin for example), is like the super-autostrada of information in your brain that allows different parts to talk to each other!!!

Tryptophan can be found in a variety of foods to help fight depression, they include: chocolate, bananas, poultry, meat, whole grain pasta, fennel seeds, figs, fish, peanuts, milk and cottage cheese.  A list that many can pick and choose from and find health and comfort.                                                         

Artificial sweeteners are often found in beverages and processed foods; such sweeteners depress pleasure hormones dopamine and interfere with the production of serotonin.

Foods to AVOID.  Any foods or drinks (Diet) with artificial sweetners should be avoided.  Multiple studies have shown this aritficial sweetner to depress serotonin levels. Those with a history of mood disorders or depression have been linked to a severe reaction after consuming aspartamine. Additional weight gain is attributed to aritificial sweetners, as they interfere with an individual’s “internal calorie counter” causing the hormones ghrelin (go eat) and leptin (stop eating) to malfunction. While consuming a diet drink with a meal of 700 calories, the leptin hormone does not respond to the feeling of satiety because the internal calorie counter thinks that only 300 calories have been eaten; that kind of deficit adds up to weight gain and to depression.

Stay on the medication.  Do talk to your doctor about how you can work with them in pursuing necessary dietary changes that will nutritionally benefit you as well.

Nutritional Facts:  Include foods in your diet with B Vitamins. They contain two amino acids: Phenylalanine and Tyrosine, which are precursors to noraepinepherine and tryptophan, which are precursors to the neurotransmitter, serotonin.

Other vitamins which may contribute to mood enhancers are: zinc, selenium, calcium, Vitamin D, iron and magnesium.

By: Kimberly Crocker-Scardicchio

Literature Research

Health Benefits of Lemon Water

Relieving digestive problems can be done through food and beverages that you may already have in your own kitchen.

Squeeze juice from 1 lemon into a glass of water.

Constipation, upset stomach gas pains, kidney stones and edema? Can all be uncomfortable and difficult to overcome. A solution that works and practiced in many countries is Drinking Lemon Water.

There is a natural way to soothe body pain,or reduce flatulence and relieve constipation, providing your body with the necessary fluid intake, Vitamin C  and potassium to flush out excess sodium, keeping your organs (i.e. heart, kidneys ) and muscles healthy and the electrolytes in balance. 

 

Malic Acid, a common ingredient used in over the counter “upset stomach” medication, is a “Naturally occuring Organic element” within lemons.  The alkaline malic acid is introduced to the stomach working with the pH balance and then into the intestinal tract, reducing the negative effects of enzymes that contribute to gas and bacteria. 

The SECRET HEALTH HINT comes from one of the many benefits of a lemon.  A simple recipe will provide immediate results:

1.  Squeeze the juice of 1/2 a lemon into a glass of water. Do this once or twice a day if you are under 150 pounds/83 kilo’s, once in the morning and once at night.

2.  Over 150 pounds/ 83 kilo’s, squeeze the juice of 1 whole lemon in a glass of warm water, twice a day.

Fiber  and exercise will also “get things moving” and should be a regular part of ones daily dietary intake.  

Food and beverages that may assist in synthesizing bile salts and secreting bile acids, returning you to comfort are: berries, watermelon, celery, spinach, dandelion, artichokes, fennel or dandelion tea and spices like fennel seeds, turmeric, or red pepper flakes. (see quantities below.) All credited to contributing to the success of a healthy body. (Suffer from IBS?  Include these foods & beverages in your daily intake.) 

Lastly, keep your muscles toned by scheduling a walk 20 minutes per day to improve your overall digestion and stay in a regular way! 

 

By Kimberly Crocker-Scardicchio

Include the following foods into your daily routine to relieve stomach discomfort and promote regular bowel movements.

 

1/3 cup berries of choice

1/2 cup watermelon

1-2 stalks celery

1 cup spinach salad

1/3 cup sauteed dandelion greens

1/4 cup artichokes

1/3 cup sliced fennel

12-18 fennel seeds can be chewed on per day

1/4 tsp turmeric added to potatoes, rice or pasta

1/8 tsp of pepper flakes to soups and vegetables

Drink plenty of water and tea! 2-4 cups of fennel or dandelion tea a day will also relieve discomfort of the stomach.

More nutrtion articles to read:

Fast Relief: Fennel Seeds Combat Gas and Upset Stomach  and  Turmeric to Ease Acid Reflex

References

http://www.health.harvard.edu/press_releases/benefit_of_drinking_green_tea

Nephron Protectively due to effects of Vitamin C

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009987

Anti-bacteria activity reversed by Vitamin C and E

Mediterranean Diet Reduces Heart Attack / Stroke

A variety of vegetables packed with vitamins & minerals to make the body healthier.

Priniciple carbohydrates are seasonal and local vegetables / fruits. Choose a variety packed with vitamins & minerals to make the body healthier.

LIFESTYLE, LIFE CHANGING, LONGEVITY.  The foundation of Eat Know How Cooking Classes remains The Mediterranean Diet.   Those who live on the mediterranean coast organize their meals from local shopping, to seasonal meal preparation and order of food consumption.  Affirmation of what the  mediterranean people have

A lifetstyle high in fruits/vegetables, grains, olive oil, fish and wine.

A lifetstyle high in fruits/vegetables, grains, olive oil, fish and wine.

understood for 1000’s of years,  a dietary intake high in grains, vegetables, fish, oil, and wine promotes an individual’s overall health. A recent study released by the New England Journal of Medicine, was quickly halted, realizing that by not releasing the information, they would do the country harm instead of showing the positive results from their research.  The following study is the copied research, documented in it’s entirety. Take a moment to explore what the doctors, researchers and dietitians quickly observed from their study.

Freshly pressed olive oil.

Freshly pressed olive oil. The “fat” utlized in the mediterranean diet for meal preparation.

The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high intake of olive oil, fruit, nuts, vegetables, and cereals; a moderate intake of fish and poultry; a low intake of dairy products, red meat, processed meats, and sweets; and wine in moderation, consumed with meals.1 In observational cohort studies2,3 and a secondary prevention trial (the Lyon Diet Heart Study),4 increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been consistently beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk.2-4 A systematic review ranked the Mediterranean diet as the most likely dietary model to provide protection against coronary heart disease.5 Small clinical trials have uncovered plausible biologic mechanisms to explain the salutary effects of this food pattern.6-9 We designed a randomized trial to test the efficacy of two Mediterranean diets (one supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and another with nuts), as compared with a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet), on primary cardiovascular prevention.

Methods

Study Design

The PREDIMED trial (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) was a parallel-group, multicenter, randomized trial. Details of the trial design are provided elsewhere.10-12 The trial was designed and conducted by the authors, and the protocol was approved by the institutional review boards at all study locations. The authors vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and all analyses and for the fidelity of this report to the protocol, which is available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Supplemental foods were donated, including extra-virgin olive oil (by Hojiblanca and Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, both in Spain), walnuts (by the California Walnut Commission), almonds (by Borges, in Spain), and hazelnuts (by La Morella Nuts, in Spain). None of the sponsors had any role in the trial design, data analysis, or reporting of the results.

Participant Selection and Randomization

Eligible participants were men (55 to 80 years of age) and women (60 to 80 years of age) with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, who had either type 2 diabetes mellitus or at least three of the following major risk factors: smoking, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, overweight or obesity, or a family history of premature coronary heart disease. Detailed enrollment criteria are provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org. All participants provided written informed consent.

Beginning on October 1, 2003, participants were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to one of three dietary intervention groups: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet. Randomization was performed centrally by means of a computer-generated random-number sequence.

Interventions and Measurements

Fish is a critical "Protein" in the lifestyle. Light, easy to digest, a good source of Vitamin B 12, Omega 3,  & minerals.

Fish is a critical “Protein” in the lifestyle. Light, easy to digest, a good source of Vitamin B 12, Omega 3, & minerals.

The dietary intervention8,10-13 is detailed in the Supplementary Appendix. The specific recommended diets are summarized in Table 1Table 1 Summary of Dietary Recommendations to Participants in the Mediterranean-Diet Groups and the Control-Diet Group.. Participants in the two Mediterranean-diet groups received either extra-virgin olive oil (approximately 1 liter per week) or 30 g of mixed nuts per day (15 g of walnuts, 7.5 g of hazelnuts, and 7.5 g of almonds) at no cost, and those in the control group received small nonfood gifts. No total calorie restriction was advised, nor was physical activity promoted.

For participants in the two Mediterranean-diet groups, dietitians ran individual and group dietary-training sessions at the baseline visit and quarterly thereafter. In each session, a 14-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet8,14 (Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix) so that personalized advice could be provided to the study participants in these groups.

Participants in the control group also received dietary training at the baseline visit and completed the 14-item dietary screener used to assess baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Thereafter, during the first 3 years of the trial, they received a leaflet explaining the low-fat diet (Table S2 in the Supplementary Appendix) on a yearly basis. However, the realization that the more infrequent visit schedule and less intense support for the control group might be limitations of the trial prompted us to amend the protocol in October 2006. Thereafter, participants assigned to the control diet received personalized advice and were invited to group sessions with the same frequency and intensity as those in the Mediterranean-diet groups, with the use of a separate 9-item dietary screener (Table S3 in the Supplementary Appendix).

A general medical questionnaire, a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire,15 and the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered on a yearly basis.10 Information from the food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate intake of energy and nutrients. Weight, height, and waist circumference were directly measured.16 Biomarkers of compliance, including urinary hydroxytyrosol levels (to confirm compliance in the group receiving extra-virgin olive oil) and plasma alpha-linolenic acid levels (to confirm compliance in the group receiving mixed nuts), were measured in random subsamples of participants at 1, 3, and 5 years (see the Supplementary Appendix).

End Points

The primary end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. Secondary end points were stroke, myocardial infarction, death from cardiovascular causes, and death from any cause. We used four sources of information to identify end points: repeated contacts with participants, contacts with family physicians, a yearly review of medical records, and consultation of the National Death Index. All medical records related to end points were examined by the end-point adjudication committee, whose members were unaware of the study-group assignments. Only end points that were confirmed by the adjudication committee and that occurred between October 1, 2003, and December 1, 2010, were included in the analyses. The criteria for adjudicating primary and secondary end points are detailed in the Supplementary Appendix.

Statistical Analysis

We initially estimated that a sample of 9000 participants would be required to provide statistical power of 80% to detect a relative risk reduction of 20% in each Mediterranean-diet group versus the control-diet group during a 4-year follow-up period, assuming an event rate of 12% in the control group.10,17 In April 2008, on the advice of the data and safety monitoring board and on the basis of lower-than-expected rates of end-point events, the sample size was recalculated as 7400 participants, with the assumption of a 6-year follow-up period and underlying event rates of 8.8% and 6.6% in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Power curves under several assumptions can be found in Figure S1 in the Supplementary Appendix.

Yearly interim analyses began after a median of 2 years of follow-up. With the use of O’Brien–Fleming stopping boundaries, the P values for stopping the trial at each yearly interim analysis were 5×10−6, 0.001, 0.009, and 0.02 for benefit and 9×10−5, 0.005, 0.02, and 0.05 for adverse effects.18 The stopping boundary for the benefit of the Mediterranean diets with respect to the primary end point was crossed at the fourth interim evaluation; on July 22, 2011, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the trial on the basis of end points documented through December 1, 2010.

All primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis by two independent analysts. Time-to-event data were analyzed with the use of Cox models with two dummy variables (one for the Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil and another for the Mediterranean diet with nuts) to obtain two hazard ratios for the comparison with the control group. To account for small imbalances in risk factors at baseline among the groups, Cox regression models were used to adjust for sex, age, and baseline risk factors. We tested the proportionality of hazards with the use of time-varying covariates. All analyses were stratified according to center. Prespecified subgroup analyses were conducted according to sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), cardiovascular-risk-factor status, and baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Sensitivity analyses were conducted under several assumptions, including imputation of data for missing values and participants who dropped out (see the Supplementary Appendix).

Results

Baseline Characteristics of the Study Participants

From October 2003 through June 2009, a total of 8713 candidates were screened for eligibility, and 7447 were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups (Figure S2 in the Supplementary Appendix). Their baseline characteristics according to study group are shown in Table 2Table 2Baseline Characteristics of the Participants According to Study Group.. Drug-treatment regimens were similar for participants in the three groups, and they continued to be balanced during the follow-up period (Table S4 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Participants were followed for a median of 4.8 years (interquartile range, 2.8 to 5.8). After the initial assessment, 209 participants (2.8%) chose not to attend subsequent visits, and their follow-up was based on reviews of medical records. By December 2010, a total of 523 participants (7.0%) had been lost to follow-up for 2 or more years. Dropout rates were higher in the control group (11.3%) than in the Mediterranean-diet groups (4.9%) (Figure S2 in the Supplementary Appendix). As compared with participants who remained in the trial, those who dropped out were younger (by 1.4 years), had a higher BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; by 0.4), a higher waist-to-height ratio (by 0.01), and a lower score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet (by 1.0 points on the 14-item dietary screener) (P<0.05 for all comparisons).

Compliance with the Dietary Intervention

Participants in the three groups reported similar adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline (Table 2, and Figure S3 in the Supplementary Appendix) and similar food and nutrient intakes. During follow-up, scores on the 14-item Mediterranean-diet screener increased for the participants in the two Mediterranean-diet groups (Figure S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). There were significant differences between these groups and the control group in 12 of the 14 items at 3 years (Table S5 in the Supplementary Appendix). Changes in objective biomarkers also indicated good compliance with the dietary assignments (Figure S4 and S5 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Legumes, olive oil, nuts and grains were an important part of the study.

Legumes, olive oil, nuts and grains were an important part of the study.

Participants in the two Mediterranean-diet groups significantly increased weekly servings of fish (by 0.3 servings) and legumes (by 0.4 servings) in comparison with those in the control group (Table S6 in the Supplementary Appendix). In addition, participants assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil and those assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts significantly increased their consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (to 50 and 32 g per day, respectively) and nuts (to 0.9 and 6 servings per week, respectively). The main nutrient changes in the Mediterranean-diet groups reflected the fat content and composition of the supplemental foods (Tables S7 and S8 in the Supplementary Appendix). No relevant diet-related adverse effects were reported (see the Supplementary Appendix). We did not find any significant difference in changes in physical activity among the three groups.

End Points

The median follow-up period was 4.8 years. A total of 288 primary-outcome events occurred: 96 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). Taking into account the small differences in the accrual of person-years among the three groups, the respective rates of the primary end point were 8.1, 8.0, and 11.2 per 1000 person-years (Table 3Table 3Outcomes According to Study Group.). The unadjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.94) for a Mediterranean diet with nuts (Figure 1Figure 1Kaplan–Meier Estimates of the Incidence of Outcome Events in the Total Study Population.) as compared with the control diet (P=0.015, by the likelihood ratio test, for the overall effect of the intervention).

The results of multivariate analyses showed a similar protective effect of the two Mediterranean diets versus the control diet with respect to the primary end point (Table 3). Regarding components of the primary end point, only the comparisons of stroke risk reached statistical significance (Table 3, and Figure S6 in the Supplementary Appendix). The Kaplan–Meier curves for the primary end point diverged soon after the trial started, but no effect on all-cause mortality was apparent (Figure 1). The results of several sensitivity analyses were also consistent with the findings of the primary analysis (Table S9 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Subgroup Analyses

Reductions in disease risk in the two Mediterranean-diet groups as compared with the control group were similar across the prespecified subgroups (Figure 2Figure 2Results of Subgroup Analyses., and Table S10 in the Supplementary Appendix). In addition, to account for the protocol change in October 2006 whereby the intensity of dietary intervention in the control group was increased, we compared hazard ratios for the Mediterranean-diet groups (both groups merged vs. the control group) before and after this date. Adjusted hazard ratios were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59 to 1.00) for participants recruited before October 2006 and 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.92) for those recruited thereafter (P=0.21 for interaction).

Discussion

In this trial, an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts resulted in an absolute risk reduction of approximately 3 major cardiovascular events per 1000 person-years, for a relative risk reduction of approximately 30%, among high-risk persons who were initially free of cardiovascular disease. These results support the benefits of the Mediterranean diet for cardiovascular risk reduction. They are particularly relevant given the challenges of achieving and maintaining weight loss. The secondary prevention Lyon Diet Heart Study also showed a large reduction in rates of coronary heart disease events with a modified Mediterranean diet enriched with alpha-linolenic acid (a key constituent of walnuts). That result, however, was based on only a few major events.4,19,20

There were small between-group differences in some baseline characteristics in our trial, which were not clinically meaningful but were statistically significant, and we therefore adjusted for these variables. In fully adjusted analyses, we found significant results for the combined cardiovascular end point and for stroke, but not for myocardial infarction alone. This could be due to stronger effects on specific risk factors for stroke but also to a lower statistical power to identify effects on myocardial infarction. Our findings are consistent with those of prior observational studies of the cardiovascular protective effects of the Mediterranean diet,2,5 olive oil,21-23 and nuts24,25; smaller trials assessing effects on traditional cardiovascular risk factors6-9 and novel risk factors, such as markers of oxidation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction6,8,26-28; and studies of conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk — namely, the metabolic syndrome6,16,29 and diabetes.30-32 Thus, a causal role of the Mediterranean diet in cardiovascular prevention has high biologic plausibility. The results of our trial might explain, in part, the lower cardiovascular mortality in Mediterranean countries than in northern European countries or the United States.33

The risk of stroke was reduced significantly in the two Mediterranean-diet groups. This is consistent with epidemiologic studies that showed an inverse association between the Mediterranean diet2,34 or olive-oil consumption22 and incident stroke.

Our results compare favorably with those of the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, wherein a low-fat dietary approach resulted in no cardiovascular benefit.35 Salient components of the Mediterranean diet reportedly associated with better survival include moderate consumption of ethanol (mostly from wine), low consumption of meat and meat products, and high consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, fish, and olive oil.36,37 Perhaps there is a synergy among the nutrient-rich foods included in the Mediterranean diet that fosters favorable changes in intermediate pathways of cardiometabolic risk, such as blood lipids, insulin sensitivity, resistance to oxidation, inflammation, and vasoreactivity.38

Our study has several limitations. First, the protocol for the control group was changed halfway through the trial. The lower intensity of dietary intervention for the control group during the first few years might have caused a bias toward a benefit in the two Mediterranean-diet groups, since the participants in these two groups received a more intensive intervention during that time. However, we found no significant interaction between the period of trial enrollment (before vs. after the protocol change) and the benefit in the Mediterranean-diet groups. Second, we had losses to follow-up, predominantly in the control group, but the participants who dropped out had a worse cardiovascular risk profile at baseline than those who remained in the study, suggesting a bias toward a benefit in the control group. Third, the generalizability of our findings is limited because all the study participants lived in a Mediterranean country and were at high cardiovascular risk; whether the results can be generalized to persons at lower risk or to other settings requires further research.

As with many clinical trials, the observed rates of cardiovascular events were lower than anticipated, with reduced statistical power to separately assess components of the primary end point. However, favorable trends were seen for both stroke and myocardial infarction. We acknowledge that, even though participants in the control group received advice to reduce fat intake, changes in total fat were small and the largest differences at the end of the trial were in the distribution of fat subtypes. The interventions were intended to improve the overall dietary pattern, but the major between-group differences involved the supplemental items. Thus, extra-virgin olive oil and nuts were probably responsible for most of the observed benefits of the Mediterranean diets. Differences were also observed for fish and legumes but not for other food groups. The small between-group differences in the diets during the trial are probably due to the facts that for most trial participants the baseline diet was similar to the trial Mediterranean diet and that the control group was given recommendations for a healthy diet, suggesting a potentially greater benefit of the Mediterranean diet as compared with Western diets.

In conclusion, in this primary prevention trial, we observed that an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts, resulted in a substantial reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events among high-risk persons. The results support the benefits of the Mediterranean diet for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.”

With GREAT Appreciation to all of those who participated in and conducted the study, ~ Kimberly Crocker-Scardicchio

References

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet

February 25, 2013DOI:  10.1056/NEJMoa1200303

Ramón Estruch, M.D., Ph.D., Emilio Ros, M.D., Ph.D., Jordi Salas-Salvadó, M.D., Ph.D., Maria-Isabel Covas,  D.Pharm., Ph.D., Dolores Corella, D.Pharm., Ph.D., Fernando Arós, M.D., Ph.D., Enrique Gómez-Gracia, M.D., Ph.D., Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Ph.D., Miquel Fiol, M.D., Ph.D., José Lapetra, M.D., Ph.D., Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos, D.Pharm., Ph.D., Lluís Serra-Majem, M.D., Ph.D., Xavier Pintó, M.D., Ph.D., Josep Basora, M.D., Ph.D., Miguel Angel Muñoz, M.D., Ph.D., José V. Sorlí, M.D., Ph.D., José Alfredo Martínez, D.Pharm, M.D., Ph.D., and Miguel Angel Martínez-González, M.D., Ph.D. for the PREDIMED Study Investigators

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1200303?query=featured_home&#t=articleBackground

Kidney Disease Low Phosphorus Diet

We are all provided with two equal fist sized organs, found in our lower back on either side of the spine just above the waist called Kidneys. Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is a medical specialty that focuses on kidney disease.

In brief, the kidneys perform multiple functions to sustain the life of the body, cleanse the body by removing waste and excess fluid through urine, provide a balance of water, salt, potassium, phosphorus and produce an active form of Vitamin D.  Multiple hormones and enzymes are produced in the kidneys and released into the body affecting the function of other organs, signaling red blood cell production, regulating blood pressure (Renin) and calcium metabolism.

The degradation of the kidneys can be influenced by a variety of factors. Having regular check-ups is key to kidney health. Do not miss doctor appointments if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic urinary tract infection, bladder issues, chronic lower back pain. Any of all of these factors should be monitored an communicated in a timely manner.

   When kidneys begin to function improperly an individual may have any, or all of the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue and weakness, loss of energy, sleep problems, any change in output or color of urine, decreased mental awareness, muscle twitches or cramps, hiccups, swelling of feet or ankles, persistent itching, chest pains, shortness of breath, high blood pressure. Symptoms should be discussed with your Doctor. Early detection of kidney disease can be addressed, so that the health of the kidneys can be sustained.

A diet low in phosphorus, sodium and balanced protein is critical when addressing kidney disease. Listed below are foods allowed for patients facing kidney issues taken from DaVita who specializes in Renal Disease.  Four important points should be reviewed with your Doctor or Dietitian.

  • Foods Low in Phosphorus (less than 110 mg per serving)
  • Consume 800-1000 mg of phosphorous per day.
  • Portion Size is critical to staying in range of low phosphorus.
  • (A normal phosphorus blood level is 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL)
Additional information on the kidneys can be reviewed at The National Kidney Foundation. Learn more about Renal Health, disease and locate professionals that can answer your questions.
By: Kimberly Crocker-Scardicchio
References
The National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org/index.cfm
DaVita http://www.davita.com/
Webmd http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-kidney-disease-basic-information
Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/kidney-failure/DS00682

LOW PHOSPHORUS FOOD SERVINGS & mg/100g

Low-phosphorus meat and poultry choices
Fresh or frozen red meats without additives or enhancements are better choices (be sure to check ingredient labels; even fresh chicken and pork may be injected with phosphates and sodium) for a kidney diet.

** Choose meats without breading, marinades or sauce. On average, fresh meat contains 65 mg of phosphorus per ounce and 7 grams of protein per ounce. Check with your Doctor or Dietitian on serving size per meat. While most will say that 3 ounces is fine the following serving size has been modified to a 2 ounce serving size.

Phosphorus content for a 2-ounce portion, cooked:

Beef, pot roast: 104 mg Beef, sirloin steak: 126 mg
Chicken breast, skinless: 126  mg Chicken thigh, skinless: 100 mg
Hamburger patty 90% lean ground beef: 114 mg Lamb chop: 122 mg
Pork roast: 126 mg
Turkey breast meat, skinless: 122 mg Turkey thigh meat, skinless: 114 mg

 Low-phosphorus fish choices 

Fish is a high-quality protein that contains omega-3 fatty acids. Fatty saltwater fish such as salmon and tuna are highest in omega-3, reducing inflammation and protecting against heart disease and cancer.

Phosphorus content for a 2-ounce portion, cooked:

Mahi Mahi: 104 mg
Tuna, canned: 88 mg

 

Low-phosphorus seafood choices

Seafood is an excellent source of very low-fat, high-quality protein. However, there are differences in varieties of the same species. For example, Pacific oysters contain 50 mg more phosphorus in a 3-ounce serving compared to Eastern oysters.

Phosphorus content for a 3-ounce portion, cooked:

Shrimp: 120 mg
Oysters, Eastern: 120 mg
Snow crab: 120 mg

 Low-phosphorus breads

Bread is a good source of carbohydrates and calories needed by your body fo renergy production. While whole grain bread is a healthy source of fiber, it also has more phosphorus and potassium than white flour bread.

Phosphorus content for a 1-ounce portion, (usually one piece of bread):

Bagel, cinnamon raisin, blueberry, plain, onion, 1 ounce: 53-70 mg Corn tortilla, 6-inch: 75 mg
English muffin, 1 ounce: 52-76 mg Flat bread: 48 mg
Flour tortillas, made without baking powder: 20-37 mg French bread or rolls: 28 mg
Italian bread or rolls: 29 mg Light wheat bread: 38 mg
Pita bread, white: 58 mg Sourdough bread: 30 mg
White bread: 25 mg

 Low-phosphorus pasta and rice

Pasta, rice and other grains are a great source of carbohydrates, calories and B vitamins, plus zinc, copper and iron. For a kidney diet, whole grains like brown rice, oat bran and wild rice ARE LIMITED due to the higher phosphorus content. A half cup of brown rice has 75-81 mg of phosphorus which can add up if you eat a larger portion.

Phosphorus content for a 1/2 cup portion, cooked:

Couscous: 20 mg Egg noodles: 50-60 mg
Macaroni: 40 mg Pearled barley: 43 mg
Plain white rice, short, medium or long grain: 35 mg Rice noodles: 14-28 mg
Spaghetti: 42 mg

 Low-phosphorus dairy, dairy substitutes and egg whites

Milk and milk products are high in calcium and phosphorus, so finding an acceptable lower phosphorus substitute is a must. A half cup of milk (4 ounces) contains 111-138 mg of phosphorus. Some liquid dairy substitutes can be used in cooking to replace milk, but not all products are interchangeable. Read ingredient lists to look for phosphate additives in nondairy products. Some products are fortified with calcium-phosphate. Beware of the ones that promote “high in calcium” as these are also high in phosphorus. Eggs are a great protein source but also contain 95 mg phosphorus in a large egg. Remove the yolk and phosphorus is only 5 mg for each egg white.

Phosphorus content for a 1/2 cup portion, unless stated otherwise:

Almond milk, Almond Breeze®, original: 50 mg Nondairy creamer without phosphate additives: 40-53 mg
Nondairy whipped topping, 2 tablespoons: 0-10 mg Sherbet: 38 mg
Sour cream, 2 tablespoons: 20-40 mg Soy milk varies by brand: 50-125 mg
Unenriched rice milk without calcium-phosphate additives: 29 mg Egg whites, pasteurized 15 mg

 Low-phosphorus snacks

Crackers, cookies, candy, fruits or vegetables — all are appealing snack foods.There are many low-phosphorus choices for your kidney diet.

Apple, 1 medium: 10 mg Applesauce, 1/2 cup: 6 mg
Baby carrots, 9 pieces: 25 mg Biscotti, without chocolate or nuts, 1 ounce: 35-50 mg
Blueberries, 1/2 cup: 9 mg Celery, 1 stalk: 10 mg
Cherries, 1/2 cup: 15 mg Fig bars, 2 bars: 10-25 mg
Fruit candies, hard candy, chews or gummy: 0 mg Fruit cocktail, 1/2 cup: 17 mg
Gelatin, without phosphate additives: 20-30 mg Low sodium crackers, 1 ounce: 20-35 mg
Peach, 1 medium: 10 mg Lemon Juice, 3 fluid ounces: 3.6 mg
Pineapple, fresh, 1/2 cup: 6 mg Radishes, 10: 9 mg
Shortbread cookies, 4 cookies: 17-35 mg Sorbet, 1/2 cup: 2-6 mg
Strawberries, fresh, 1/2 cup: 18 mg Unsalted popcorn, 1 cup: 8 mg
Unsalted pretzels, 1 ounce: 20-40 mg Vanilla wafers, 1 ounce = 5-8 cookies: 12-20 mg

 Lower phosphorus cheese choices

All cheese contains phosphorus with most having 120-250 mg per ounce; some contain more than 300 mg per ounce. The suggested portion for a dialysis diet is usually one ounce of cheese 1-2 times a week if phosphorus is controlled. Check with your dietitian for individual recommendations. Cream cheese-based spreads are much lower in phosphorus than cheese-based spreads. Portion control is key when it comes to cheese!

Low-phosphorus cheese choices:

Blue cheese, 1 ounce: 110 mg Cottage cheese, 1/4 cup: 92 mg
Cream cheese, 2 tablespoons: 20-40 mg Feta cheese, 1 ounce: 96 mg
Neufchatel cheese, 1 ounce: 39 mg Parmesan cheese, grated, 2 tablespoons: 72 mg

 Managing a low-phosphorus diet

Avoid dried fruits which are higher in phosphorus levels including: raisins, prunes, peaches, pears, dates, currants, bananas. Legumes should be reviewed with your dietitian, some are higher in phosphorus and may not be allowed.

FRUITS

Most fruits can be factored at 10 mg phosphorus per serving. Some fruits do not have any phosphorus. Fresh fruits with higher levels of phosphorus can be eaten in moderation. Weigh your food carefully to configure the amount of mg/100g.

GREAT CHOICE, No present phosphorous in fruit; Raspberries, Cherries, Grapefruit, Lychee, Apricots, Pineapple, Plum, Pumpkin

Banana 27 mg; Blackberries 27 mg; Kiwi 71 mg; strawberries 27mg; Tomato 63 mg; Watermelon 26 mg; Mango 23 mg; Orange 18 mg

VEGETABLES

GREAT CHOICE, No present phosphorus in vegetables: Brussel Sprouts, Chicory, Cucumber, Pickles, Leeks, Olives, Radish, Red Paprika,

Asparagus 49 mg: Artichoke 103 mg; Avocado 82 mg; Broccoli 46 mg; Baked Beans 132 mg; Cabbage 36 mg; Carrots 23 mg; Cauliflower 20 mg; Corn 79 mg; Green Beans 26 mg;  Green Peppers 14 mg; Mushrooms 36 mg; Onion 23 mg; Peas 187 mg; Potato 78 mg; Spinach 15 mg; Zucchini 7 mg; Lima Beans 178 mg;

If baking at home, explore substitutes in baking found at DeVita.com. Bakers Active Dry Yeast provides a good solution when baking.  Another TIP to adding levitation is to follow the recipe backwards, eliminate baking powder and salt. Beat the egg whites in a separate bowl until foamy, add a few grains of cream of tarter, beat another 10 seconds. Lastly, fold egg whites into the other ingredients.

Fennel Seeds to Restore Health

Fennel field typical in Mediterranean Countries

Across the fields of the Mediterranean country of Italy, yellow-flowered green feathery leaves gently move in the breeze. The “Florence Fennel” or Finocchio (feen o key oh) produces a vegetable and seed commonly used in promoting digestion at kitchen tables within Europe, India, Southeast Asia and North Africa.

Foeniculum Vulgare (genius) is listed under the species Apiaceae, or hollow stemmed plants, grouped with other family members including: anise, carrot, caraway, cilantro, cumin, dill, parsley and parsnip.The fennel seed is both green (soft and easy to chew) and yellowish in color (used in cooking) and full of nutrients.

Fennel seeds promote digestive healing. Limited to 1/2 tsp per day.

A dozen fennel seeds chewed on at a time will soothe and relieve various ailments in both men and women.

  • Breath freshener
  • Ease gum soreness
  • Assists in digestion
  • Combats acid reflux
  • Relieves flatulence, gas, stomach ache
  • Creates bile to promote bowel movement. Unclogs liver.
  • Due to their “expectorant properties”, fennel seeds ease coughs and treats bronchial congestion,  asthma
  • Reduces menstrual cramps, hot flashes, night sweats, water retention. Functions as a phytoestrogen and improves libido.
  • Curves stress eating!  ( 12 seeds 3x’s a day) Fennel Seeds or Flax Seeds are a natural “Appetite Suppressant” contributing to weight maintenance, or weight loss
  • Used to improve anxiety and depression
  • Lowers Blood Pressure
  • Fennel seeds can be purchased in the grocery isle that sells herbs and spices.
Eaten raw, steamed or boiled, fennel is encouraged to be part of ones nutritional intake. The texture of the smooth white fennel bulb when sliced releases a gentle aroma of lemon and licorice. The mouth feel of the vegetable is similar to celery. Full of fiber, it is an easy snack to pack, or consumed as an after dinner palate cleanser. Gently boil sliced fennel and green leaves for about 10 minutes. Pour water from pan into a mug and slowly drink water to promote intestinal healing.

Fennel can be eaten raw, steamed or boiled

FENNEL’S Nutrient Composition: “Fennel seeds contain antioxidants, dietary fibers, vitamins A, B and C. Minerals that promote healing are also present: copper, iron, calcium, potassium, manganese, selenium, zinc and magnesium. Its active components anethole, limonene, fenchone, anisic aldehyde, chavicol, myrcene, cineole and pinene are what make fennel seeds effective in their many restorative and curative functions in different body systems like the digestive system, respiratory system and the female reproductive system.”
WARNINGS: Fennel seeds oil is considered volatile. Those who experience plant allergies should approach fennel consumption with caution. Consult with your doctor before consuming fennel seeds if: pregnant, experience allergies or before giving to a child or baby.  Important to note that research has not proven fennel’s ability to calm colic in babies.
By: Kimberly Crocker-Scardicchio

Turmeric & Saffron to Cleanse & Heal Body

Turmeric cleanses the body

Go for it….Spice up your life!  Scientific research has revealed what the people of India have known for centuries! Turmeric and Saffron, whether combined with pharmaceuticals, or taken by themselves, cleanse the skin and cure what ails you; both spices functioning as natures prized antibiotics.

Turmeric and its cousin Saffron contain a polyphenol called “curcumin”, an  antioxidant that is associated with reducing nutrition related pathologies. They are bland tasting, turmeric has a rich yellow color that we associate with “Curry”  and saffron is orange and string-like. These wonderful seasonings are slowly taking on the health importance that they deserve.

Studies have determined that “Curcumin” impacts health as an: “antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic illnesses.

The positive impact of the medicinal properties are mediated through the regulation of various:  transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes”, states The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. They further attest curcumin to be the “Spice of Life” saying that, “Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN).”   All evidenced in the country of India which has been duly of having lower occurrences of heart disease and cancer.

Saffron comes from the crocus flower

Many comparisons have shown that individuals who leave India are diagnosed with a health disease, not otherwise documented in previous family history, after moving into a western society.  Duly noted, the main difference in dietary intake was a lower to “no” amounts of turmeric being consumed in their meals.

Turmeric is not as costly as saffron and is readily available with other herbs and seasonings in stores, or in 300 mg capsule form in the vitamin and mineral grocery isle.

Introducing turmeric into meal preparation is very easy to do. 1 teaspoon added to rice, pasta, potato’s, soups and vegetables are good ways to switch from the salt shaker to a healthier spice that heals and makes your body work and function better. Saffron is more costly and commonly used in the Italian dish Risotto Milanese, however, it also provides the same healing benefit as its close relative.

MANY HOME REMEDIES USING TURMERIC

  • With a few grains, turmeric’s antiseptic properties help to heal cuts, wounds, kitchen burns and abrasions. Make a paste of Turmeric and Raw Honey; 1 teaspoon honey and 1 teaspoon turmeric.  Adjust amount to wound, apply to wound and cover with a gauze. 3 x’s/day.
  • Gently rub a small dusting of turmeric onto area of face to reduce facial hair growth. Massage into skin with a dampened tea bag.
  • A mixture of 1 teaspoon turmeric and 1/4 cup yogurt rubbed onto the abdomen to reduce stretch marks during pregnancy. Rinse off after 5 minutes.
  • Added 1/4 teaspoon to individual meals through out the day, keeps various diseases a bay.
  • Mixture of 1/4 teaspoon turmeric, 1/8 teaspoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon mustard oil rubbed into gums to combat gum infections. Rinse with warm water.
  • Accredited for reducing anemia and sore throats by eating a paste made of 1 teaspoon raw honey & 1/4 teaspoon of turmeric. 3 x’s/day.
  • Stop diarrhea by drinking, 1/4 teaspoon turmeric to 1 glass of water
  • Sick with an infection? Combine: glass of milk  and stir in 1/2 teaspoon turmeric , 1 teaspoon honey. Drink this natural antibiotic 2 times a day.
  • Medicinal use for pathologies have duly noted an intake of 1-2 teaspoons of turmeric  3x’s a day inhibits growth of tumors, improves function of pancreas, reduces incidence of heart attack.
  • Combat GERD or “Acid Reflux” by consuming 1/8 teaspoon turmeric (a 300 mg capsule) before dinner. Also consider Fast Relief: Fennel Seeds Combat Digestive Problems and

Gas Pains Drink Lemon Water

  • Heal Acne by combining in a bowl 1/2 tsp water, 1/4 tsp turmeric and 1/8 tsp salt. With a cotton ball gently dab a small amount of  paste onto acne and allow skin to absorb ingredients overnight. In the morning, gently cleanse to remove and refresh skin.
For modern western medicine practices, the excitement around the ancient asian spices brings hope on the horizon for how meal preparation can enhance an individuals overall health. The many benefits of polyphenol curcumin are continuously being researched: Inflammation, Arthritis, Irritated Bowel Syndrome, Kidney Disease etc. Present studies  have shown that curcumin inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in cultures, human and animal studies. Curcumin’s many strengths and limitations are being seriously explored and are bringing new opportunities to healing ones body.
By, Kim Crocker-Scardicchio
Recipes

Lentil Soup
Replace the Salt Shaker
Chicken Curry
Pork or Beef Roast with Vegetables
Risotto Milanese
Spices to Lower Inflammation
Health Benefits of Saffron

References
 1.  Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug;49(8):1834-42. Epub 2011 May 6.
 Safety Assessment of a Solid Lipid Curcumin Particle Preparation: Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies.
 Dadhaniya PPatel CMuchhara JBhadja NMathuria NVachhani K Soni MG.
 Pre-Clinical Department, Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Dholka 387 810, India.
 website:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=benefits%20turmeric%20body
2  .Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Aug;25(4-5):519-34.
 Curcumin: The Potential for Efficacy in Gastrointestinal Diseases.
 Irving GRKarmokar ABerry DPBrown KSteward University of Leicester, Department of Cancer Studies, Room 503, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK.
 website:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22122768
3. J Fam Pract. 2011 Mar;60(3):155-6.
 Clinical Inquiry. Does turmeric relieve inflammatory conditions?
 White BJudkins DZ.
 Oregon Health & Science University, Family Medicine, Portland, USA.
 website:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21369559
4.  Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2011 Oct 25. [Epub ahead of print]
 Curcumin and its Formulations: Potential Anti-Cancer Agents
 Zhu HLJi JLHuang XF
 zhuhl@nju.edu.cn.    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22044005
5. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(7):919-30.
 Curcumin, the golden spice from Indian saffron, is a chemosensitizer and radiosensitizer for tumors and chemoprotector and radioprotector for normal organs.
 Goel A
 Aggarwal BB
 Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
6. Curcumin; Indian Solid Gold http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569205

Lemon Tuna Pasta Delight

Reminiscent to a Southern Italian eating experience, enjoy this pasta dish that is palpably light, thanks to the lemon zest that accents this easy to make meal. A spring and summer time favorite!

Lemon Tuna Delight

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serves 4
Ingredients for Sauce

  • 4 Tablespoons Olive Oil
  • 2 medium size garlic cloves (peeled)
  • 1 teaspoon red pepper flakes
  • 10 cherry tomatoes (washed and cut in half)
  • 1 Tablespoon Capers
  • 3-6 ounces of tuna (May use canned or pieces cut from a tuna steak.)
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1 Tablespoon parsley torn into smaller pieces
  • Lemon Zest of 1/2 lemon. avoid cutting white pith. (Lemon should appear freshly picked with a bright yellow appearance and thick skin.)
  • Juice of half lemon
  • 4 Lemon Rounds (for presentation)
  • 4 Parsley sprigs (for presentation)
  • 250 g of Barilla Pasta

Directions
13 minutes
Fill a pasta pot with 8 cups of water, cover with lid, place on stove top on high heat and bring to a boil. Add 2 Tablespoons salt when the water boils, stir with wooden spoon. Add pasta. Pasta should par boil for 8 minutes. Immediately, placing a colander into a clean sink, take the pasta pot using pot holders or oven mitt, pour boiling water and pasta into colander. Add drained pasta to sauce.

10 minutes
Utilizing a large skillet pan, place on stove top on low heat. Add 2 Tablespoons of Olive Oil,1 garlic clove cut in half and red pepper flakes; allow to saute for 3 minutes. Remove skillet from heat. (Carefully, take a fork and remove cooked garlic, discard.) Add tomatoes to skillet cover with lid and place onto low heat once again. After 5 minutes remove lid from skillet and with a wooden spoon gently push down on each tomato to release its juice. Add Salt, Capers, Tuna, 1 Garlic Clove Minced (clove cut into small pieces), Parsley. Cover skillet and allow to continue to simmer for another 3 minutes. Add 2 ladles, (about 1/2 cup), of pasta water (using the pasta starch in the water will serve to better adhere sauce to the pasta.). Using a wooden spoon stir the water and the sauce together. Add cooked and drained pasta to sauce, toss so that pasta is coated by sauce. Add lemon zest, the juice of 1/2 the lemon, 2 Tablespoons Olive Oil gently toss pasta to combine flavors.

Plating Pasta for Presentation
Evenly distribute pasta on each plate. Place a thinly sliced lemon round in the center of each pasta mound along with a sprig of Parsley.

Utensils Needed:
Pasta Pot or tall pan for boiling water with lid.
Skillet with lid.
Tablespoon for measuring
Teaspoon for measuring
Cutting Board
Steak Knife
Wooden Spoon
Zester and Mincer
Large Ladle
Towel
Potholder or Oven Mitt
Colander